What is the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA)?
By default, PDPA is the territorial recognition of GDPR and is designed to protect personal data in digital format against identity theft and misuse. Personal data being collected, processed, distributed, and transmitted or transformed in any manner and for any purpose is also governed by the PDPA. As such, marketers and business units who collect and make use of their customers’ personal data in the course of operation are required to comply with the PDPA.
What is personal data?
PDPA defines personal data as associated data, which can identify a natural person either directly or indirectly, except for the deceased. In other words, personal data is any kind of customers’ or users’ identity having been received with or without notice, including biological data e.g. fingerprint, voice recognition, face detection, etc.
Who is subject to the PDPA?
Basically, it is the data controller and the data processor that are regulated by the PDPA. PDPA defines the ‘Data Controller’ as a natural or juristic person who is authorized to collect, use, or disclose personal data, and the ‘Data Processor’ is the person who proceeds with collection, usage, or disclosure of such data on behalf of or according to the data controller’s instructions. However, the data processor is not the data controller. Simply, one person cannot function as the data processor and the data controller at the same time and under the same body. The core function must be carried out independently, even though, they are under the umbrella of affiliated companies.
The data controller can be the business owner or brand that acquires the users’ or customers’ personal data through a registration or membership system. On the other hand, the data processor can be an agency or hosting service provider.
What are duties of the data controller and data processor?
The data controller and the data processor are distinguished by their duties under the PDPA, even though the descriptions seem to be overlapping to some extent.
In general, the processor has lesser duties than the controller, provided that the processor could be held liable as if they were a controller, should they fail to comply with the controller’s instructions with regards to the collection, usage, and disclosure of personal data.
* The content of this table is merely a summary of concerning sections of the PDPA. Crucial details must be further sought for implementation.
Multi-national corporations including their branch and representative offices are subject to the PDPA, either as the controller or the processor. The former would be most likely the case when they engage with local customers or engage in business-related activities internally and externally. The main concerns are the restrictions on personal data transmission overseas, particularly sensitive data, such as biological data, health records, labour union data, political comments, sexual behavior, etc.
How to prepare for the PDPA regulatory impact?
PDPA generally applies to the online and offline businesses as long as personal data is collected and processed in the course of their business operations. The act is extensive to the universal personal data including those of the customer, business partner, user, target research, employee, etc., either retrieved from primary or secondary sources.
With the PDPA less than 12 months away, businesses must make the collection and management of personal data a priority. Here are 4 practical steps that businesses can follow to prepare for the regulatory impact:
Create a contact channel where the data owners can withdraw their consent, request an update, or erase their data, should they wish. Currently there are no specific requirements for the contact channel. Thus, it can be a hotline, e-mail, tied-in links, or even a letter. However, it must allow the data owners to express their will as easily as possible. The data log must be created and maintained in an appropriate manner.
Start looking at internal audit policies and creation of a personal data protection unit according to the PDPA’s requirements. This additional cost is unavoidable. Thus, advanced budget planning would prevent redundancy and associated deficiency.
There is an exemption for ‘Small Enterprise’. However, the criteria are not yet set and will be further defined by the committee. The minimum requirements and subordinate rules are predicted to be known as soon as the committee is formed, so are the following administrative procedures and law enforcement when the office is in place.
What are the penalties for non-compliance?
PDPA outlines strategic and common duties between the high data controller and the data processor. Any failure to comply with the PDPA would subject them to the maximum imprisonment up to 1 year and/or fine penalty up to 5 million Baht, although, some of these are rarely compoundable offenses. As such, integrated collaboration is essentially required to mitigate the legal exposures.
What will happen with the personal data obtained before the PDPA?
Previously obtained data may be kept and used according to the original purposes. However, data owners must be informed that they can erase the data or withdraw their prior consent. Other than that, disclosure and related activities e.g. transmission, sharing, processing, etc. of such data must comply with the PDPA regulations.
In the past, personal data has been exploited in various ways as data controllers and data processors could do as they please due to lack of regulatory controls, legal protection, and law enforcement. That will change after the PDPA comes into force.
We recommended businesses collecting personal data of persons residing in Thailand to familiarize themselves as early and as comprehensive as possible with the PDPA and reconsider their policies and procedures for handling personal data.
We will monitor the development of the PDPA subordinate laws and regulations and we will provide you with updates once these will become available.
We hope that the information provided was helpful to you. If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. We will make sure that your question will be brought to the right person’s attention and we will deliver a prompt response.
The above information is intended to highlight an overview of key issues for ease of understanding and cannot substitute a personal consultation with a qualified lawyer. We highly advise you to read this article in conjunction with appropriate advice from your legal counsel to determine the legal implications this article might have on your business and how to mitigate exposures as much as possible.
Despite applying due care when selecting and producing the information published on this newsletter, we accept no liability in case such information is not accurate, up-to-date or complete.
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